11 Major Types of Plant Diseases and How to Take Care of Them

Last Updated: 19.10.2023
Harpreet Monga
Written by
Harpreet Monga, a seasoned content writer and gardening enthusiast, has crafted over 150 articles at India Gardening. She expanded her writing journey with freelancing at the Times of India. Her passion for writing shines through her contributions to various book projects. Harpreet's commitment is to sow stories that resonate with readers, fostering a deep connection to the natural world.

Different Types of Plant Diseases can hamper their growth and can also result in death. Here’s how you can tackle them to save your green friends!

Diseases are one of the most problematic situations for plants that hamper their growth and can even lead to their demise. Have a look at the most common Types of Plant Diseases that every gardener must be aware of.

Here’s how you can protect the plants from Insects

Types of Plant Diseases

1. Blossom End Rot

Types of Plant Diseases

It generally affects tomato, pepper, cucumber, and eggplant. Irregular watering and calcium deficiency is the major cause of this disease. It causes an irregular patch at the tip of the fruit or vegetable and becomes brownish as the fruit matures.


Choose a resistant vegetable variety and keep the soil evenly moist but not damp. You can also apply a layer of mulch (straw, compost, grass) to conserve moisture.

2. Downy Mildew

Downy mildew occurs in cool and moist weather during early spring or late fall. Tiny yellow spots develop on the leaf with white-blue patches on the underside. As the condition worsens, its fluffy growth darkens.


Remove the infected foliage or the entire plant. Avoid crowding the plants together and rotate them timely.

3. Early Blight

Types of Plant Diseases 2

It results in brown leaf spots and is mostly seen in tomatoes and potatoes. The disease is mainly caused by the fungus named Alternaria solani.


Stake the plants for better air circulation. Use drip irrigation to keep the foliage dry. 

4. Late Blight


This disease is also very common in tomatoes and potatoes and is caused by the fungus named Phytophthora infestans. It mostly happens in an overly humid environment.


Trim out the infected leaves and parts. Use rakes for better air circulation.

5. Powdery Mildew

Types of Plant Diseases 3

Powdery mildew starts on young leaves and covers the foliage with a white powdery substance. Unopened flower buds may become white and its infection may hamper their unfurling.


Provide good drainage and air circulation. Avoid watering the plant during the night.

6. Rust

Rust is easy to spot as it forms brown spots on leaves and stems. The spots progress from red to black. It mostly happens due to the low light, warm temperature, humidity, prolonged high-intensity light, and high temperature.


Use rust-resistant plant varieties. Prune or stake the plants and remove weeds to improve air circulation. You can use a wide layer of mulch for better growth.

7. Snow Mold

Types of Plant Diseases 4

It primarily affects cool-season grasses. Snow mold impacts when there is heavy, deep snowfall. There are two types of snow mold – pink and gray.


Surprisingly, snow mold dies naturally when the temperatures increase. Still, you should mow the lawn periodically as tall grass is a breeding hub for snow mold.

8. Black Spot

This disease is primarily seen in roses. In cool and moist weather, tiny black spots appear on the leaves that eventually turn them yellow. Black spot creates black splotches that occur during moist, humid conditions.


Keep leaves clean and dry by mulching the plant. Place roses where it gets good sunlight. Plants also can be sprayed with a fungicide to prevent black spots.

9. Black Knot

Types of Plant Diseases 5

The Black knot is most noticeable during fall and winter after all the leaves have fallen. Knobby, swollen black growth called as galls grow along the length of stems and branches. In early summer, the new growth on the edges of older galls gets covered with velvety, olive-green spores.


Remove black knots or galls during winter. Large branches with established knots should be removed entirely to prevent them from spreading. 

10. Mosaic Virus

Mosaic virus attacks roses, beans, tobacco, tomato, potato, cucumber, and pepper. It shortens the lifespan and stunts the plant’s growth.


Snip away all the infected parts. Go for resistant plant varieties and practice crop rotation.

11. Sooty Mold

Sooty mold is caused by a fungus that dwells on the sticky deposits left by some insects on the plant. It hampers the photosynthesis process, stunts the growth, and causes premature dropping of leaves.


Spray insecticidal soap or neem oil solution on the plant. 

1 thought on “11 Major Types of Plant Diseases and How to Take Care of Them”

  1. Really appreciate your content.
    Black swellings or knots, silver leaves, light powdery patches, and depressed cankers are some of the major symptoms of black knot diseases in various plants.
    We provide 100% organic products to cure plant diseases.


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