Read the following article and learn all about the Types of Mushrooms in India as these nutrient-rich edible fungi are a popular superfood!
What is a Mushroom?
The scientific name of Mushroom is Agaricus bisporus. Mushrooms are a Fungi; they are the spore-bearing fleshy bodies of a fungus that can fruit in soil, on the ground, or any of its food source. It is the reproductive structure, produced by fungi. You can use the word to refer to the fungus that has a cap, a stem, and gills. Though mushrooms can grow anywhere, not all of them are edible. Over 2000 varieties of Mushrooms are identified all around the world, but only some specified types of it are safe to eat. Mushroom is an essential or the main ingredient in a variety of dishes in multiple cuisines. Let’s have a look at the Types of Mushrooms in India!
Types of Mushrooms in India
Various kinds of Mushrooms are cultivated commercially in the country. In the section that follows, we will discuss the Types of Mushrooms in India.
1. Button Mushroom
Botanical Name: Agaricus bisporus
This is one of the most commonly available varieties of mushrooms. They have a mild flavor, with a creamy-white color. You can eat them in both raw and cooked forms. Buttons go well with multiple dishes such as pizza, burgers, soups, and salads. They are widely used in India as well, and their cultivation is done seasonally or under a controlled environment. Almost 90% of the mushrooms you eat are of button mushrooms variety, making it one of the most popular types of Mushrooms in India. It is one of the best vegetables to grow in pots.
2. Straw Mushroom
Botanical Name: Volvariella volvacea
Also famous as ‘Chinese Mushroom,’ these are as popular in India as the button mushrooms. They have a good aroma, flavor, and are rich in various nutrients and proteins. Usually, an edible in tropics and subtropics, in India, their cultivation generally takes place in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Andra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh, etc.
3. Oyster Mushroom
Botanical Name: Pleurotus ostreatus
One of the popular types of mushroom in India, people call it ‘dhingri’ in Hindi. This variety can easily grow in tropical and temperate regions. These are common in many cuisines and dishes. Shaped like a fan and dusty color, they look a lot like oysters, just like their names. Their cultivation in India usually takes place in the states of Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Orissa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, etc.
4. Milky Mushrooms
Botanical Name: Calocybe indica
Milky Mushrooms are also known as summer mushrooms. It is a fantastic variety that grows in states like Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andra Pradesh, and Odisha. They are also less demanding and offer a high yield. These mushrooms look attractive with bright white color and have a good shelf life as well.
5. Cremini Mushroom
Botanical Name: Agaricus bisporus
These mushrooms belong to the same species as that of button mushrooms. They just differ slightly due to the development of a coffee-colored skinny layer on the cap and thus have dark tan patches on top. These Mushrooms are, however, more flavourful in taste and have a firmer texture than button mushrooms.
6. Shiitake Mushroom
Botanical Name: Lentinula edodes
Famous for their medicinal qualities, this variety is gaining popularity among the consumers of mushrooms. Thus the demand for this type is also increasing in the country. Some farmers in Himachal and other northern states of India have successfully begun to cultivate this variety. These mushrooms taste better when cooked, carrying a smokey flavor and low water content.
Also Read: 10 Best Plant Identification Apps in India
7. Portobello Mushroom
Botanical Name: Agaricus
You can eat these mushrooms in both raw and cooked forms. When fully grown, they have a big in size cap that has black gills at the back of it. This cap is flat on top and has an umbrella-like, curved structure. Famous for its creamy, meaty texture, they go well with a lot of dishes and are readily available throughout the year.
Mushroom Benefits & Uses
Mushrooms come loaded with a lot of essential nutrients that can immensely improve your health. Here are some proven benefits of including these veggies in your diet.
- They are rich in antioxidants and help you stay young & active.
- They are good for heart health and make an excellent low-calorie alternative for meat and other high fat, cholesterol food.
- They contain Vitamin D; an essential vitamin responsible for strengthening bones and muscles.