What Is Phool Makhana and How to Grow it

Last Updated: 11.03.2024

Phool Makhana is quite popular in India and people use it in a variety of ways. Here’s everything about growing it in detail!

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Phool Makhana, also known as fox nuts or lotus seeds, is a type of seed that comes from the Euryale ferox plant, a species of water lily.  The plant grows in ponds, and is especially prevalent in regions of India, Korea, China, Japan, and parts of eastern Russia.

If you want to know about growing Makhana so check out here

Phool Makhana Information

The name “Phool Makhana” is Hindi, and it is commonly used in India. “Phool” translates to “flower,” while “makhana” is the term for the popped lotus seeds. Phool Makhana is harvested, then roasted and popped much like popcorn, to be used in a variety of dishes. It has a soft, chewy texture when cooked and a mild, slightly sweet flavor.

In India, Phool Makhana is often used in desserts, snacks, or savory dishes. One popular Indian dessert that uses Phool Makhana is “Makhane ki Kheer,” a type of sweet pudding.

Phool Makhana is highly nutritious. It’s a good source of protein, carbohydrates, fiber, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, and zinc. It’s also low in calories, making it a popular choice for weight loss diets. Additionally, they are considered beneficial for kidney health, for managing blood sugar levels, and they have anti-aging properties.

Propagating Phool Makhana 

Propagating Phool Makhana, commonly known as Fox Nut, can be achieved through seeds or division of the rhizomes. Here’s a detailed process for each method:

1. Propagation from Seeds:

  • Seed Collection: Wait for the mature Phool Makhana plant to produce seed pods. The pods will turn brown and dry out when they are ready for harvest. Collect the mature seeds from the dried seed pods.
  • Scarification: To enhance seed germination, scarify the hard outer seed coat. You can do this by gently rubbing the seeds with sandpaper or using a sharp knife to make a small nick on the seed coat. This process allows water to penetrate the seeds, aiding germination.
  • Seed Soaking: Soak the scarified Phool Makhana seeds in warm water for 24 to 48 hours. Change the water every 12 hours to ensure oxygen supply and to prevent mold formation.
  • Sowing: Prepare a seed tray or small pots with well-draining potting mix. Plant the soaked seeds about 1 inch deep into the soil. Water the soil lightly after sowing.
  • Germination: Place the seed tray or pots in a warm and sunny location. The ideal temperature for germination is around 25-30°C. Keep the soil moist but not waterlogged. Germination can take several weeks, so be patient.
  • Transplanting: Once the Phool Makhana seedlings have developed a few leaves and are strong enough to handle, Phool Makhana can be transplanted into larger pots or the ground. Provide them with well-draining soil and ample sunlight.

You can also explore 13 Best Seeds and Bulbs to Plant in September in India here

2. Propagation by Division of Rhizomes

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  • Digging up the Plant: Identify a mature Phool Makhana plant with healthy rhizomes. Carefully dig up the plant from the soil using a garden spade or shovel.
  • Dividing the Rhizomes: Gently separate the rhizomes of the Phool Makhana plant. Look for sections of the rhizomes that have healthy buds or shoots. Cut the rhizomes into sections, ensuring that each section has a good portion of roots and shoots.
  • Potting or Planting: Prepare pots or planting sites with well-draining soil. Plant each divided rhizome section in a separate pot or space them out in the garden. Water the newly divided plants to help them establish their roots.
  • Care: Keep the newly divided Phool Makhana plants in a warm and sunny location. Water the plants regularly to keep the soil moist but not waterlogged. Once the plants have established themselves, you can reduce watering frequency.

Phool Makhana plants prefer warm and sunny conditions and grow well in water bodies like ponds and lakes. Whether propagated from seeds or by division, it’s important to provide them with suitable growing conditions to ensure successful growth and development.

Requirements for Growing Phool Makhana


Phool Makhana plants thrive in full sunlight. They require at least 6 to 8 hours of direct sunlight per day to grow and bloom properly. Make sure to choose a sunny location for your lotus plant or use artificial grow lights if growing indoors.


These Phool Makhana plants prefer a rich and loamy soil that is well-draining. The ideal soil pH for lotus cultivation is between 6.5 to 7.5. You can use a mix of loamy soil and aquatic plant fertilizer to provide the necessary nutrients for the Phool Makhana  plant to grow.

You can also know about How to Make Potting Soil at Home in India here


Being aquatic plants, Phool Makhana  plants require water to grow. However, they are not fully submerged like other water plants. Phool Makhana plants prefers shallow water with a depth of around 6 inches to start with, increasing to 18-24 inches as the plant grows.

The water should be clean, free from pollutants, and have minimal water movement to avoid disturbing the lotus.


Phool Makhana prefer warm temperatures to thrive. The ideal temperature range for lotus growth is around 24-32°C. They are tropical plants and will not tolerate frost or freezing temperatures.

If you live in a region with colder winters, consider growing lotus in containers indoors during the colder months.


These plants prefer a humid environment, but Phool Makhana can tolerate a wide range of humidity levels. Growing lotus in water ensures a naturally humid environment.

Phool Makhana Plant Care

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To promote robust growth, you can incorporate aquatic plant fertilizer into the soil mix. Follow the instructions on the fertilizer packaging for the appropriate amount to add to the soil.


  1. Aphids: Small, soft-bodied insects that feed on the sap of Phool Makhana leaves and buds, causing distortion and stunting of growth.
  2. Spider Mites: Tiny arachnids that can create fine webs on the leaves and suck plant juices, leading to yellowing and wilting.
  3. Caterpillars: Some caterpillar species can feed on lotus leaves, causing damage to the foliage.
  4. Lotus Weevils (Neochetina spp.): These weevils can feed on lotus leaves and can be particularly damaging to the plants, especially in regions where they have been introduced to control invasive water hyacinths.


  1. Lotus Rust (Uromyces nelumbinis): A fungal disease that causes reddish-brown pustules on the leaves and can weaken the Phool Makhana plant.
  2. Pythium Root Rot: A waterborne fungal disease that can lead to rotting of the lotus roots and eventual plant decline.
  3. Leaf Spot (Cercospora spp.): Caused by various fungi, leaf spot can result in brown or black spots on lotus leaves, potentially leading to defoliation.
  4. Gray Mold (Botrytis spp.): A fungal disease that can affect flowers, buds, and stems, causing decay and browning of affected tissues.

Preventive Measures and Management:

  1. Monitor your Phool Makhana plants regularly for signs of pests and diseases. Early detection allows for prompt action.
  2. Practice good garden hygiene by removing and destroying any infected plant material to prevent the spread of diseases.
  3. Use organic insecticidal soap or neem oil to control aphids and spider mites. Biological controls, like introducing beneficial predators, can also help manage pests.
  4. Avoid overwatering, as this can reduce the likelihood of root rot diseases. Provide good drainage to prevent waterlogged soil.
  5. Use appropriate fungicides or natural remedies to control fungal diseases such as rust and leaf spot. Copper-based fungicides are often effective.
  6. Select disease-resistant lotus varieties, if available, to reduce the risk of infections.
  7. Ensure proper spacing between Phool Makhana plants to improve air circulation, which can reduce the chance of fungal infections.

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Phool Makhana Uses

1. Culinary Uses

  • Snack: Roasted Phool Makhana makes for a healthy and delicious snack, especially when seasoned with spices like salt, pepper, or chaat masala.
  • Curry: Phool Makhana can be added to curries, gravies, and stir-fries to enhance the taste and texture.
  • Kheer/Pudding: They are used in making kheer, a traditional Indian milk-based dessert, by adding them to rice and milk pudding.
  • Makhana Popcorn: Popped Phool Makhana can be used as a healthier alternative to popcorn.

Phool Makhana is increasingly used in modern culinary innovations to add a unique texture and flavor to various dishes, such as salads, smoothies, and desserts.

2. Ayurvedic and Medicinal Uses

  • Nutritive: Phool Makhana is rich in protein, fiber, and various essential nutrients, making it a nutritious food choice.
  • Digestive Health: In Ayurvedic medicine, Phool Makhana is believed to aid in digestion and reduce acidity.
  • Anti-Inflammatory: They are thought to have anti-inflammatory properties, and some traditional medicines use them to alleviate inflammation-related conditions.
  • Weight Management: Phool Makhana is low in calories and fat, making it suitable for weight management diets.

3. Religious and Ritual Uses

  • Offerings: In some cultures, Phool Makhana is offered as a sacred food item during religious ceremonies and festivals.
  • Fasting: During fasting or religious observances, Phool Makhana is considered a permissible food.

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