How to Grow Casuarina Equisetifolia | Whistling Pines Care

Last Updated: 10.03.2024

Looking to learn How to Grow Casuarina Equisetifolia? Our article provides all the tips and tricks you need to successfully grow Whistling Pine.

Casuarina equisetifolia

If you’re looking to add a new species to your garden, you might want to consider the Casuarina equisetifolia. This unique tree is not only aesthetically pleasing, but it also offers a host of other benefits that make it a great addition to any yard. Here are all the details about growing the Whistling Pines.

About Casuarina Equisetifolia

Casuarina equisetifolia is a fast-growing evergreen tree that is native to Australia, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. It is widely planted as a windbreak, erosion control, and timber crop. Whistling Pines has a unique appearance with needle-like leaves that resemble a pine tree and woody fruit cones.

It can grow up to 30 meters tall and has a deep root system that makes it drought-tolerant. Due to its hardiness and adaptability, it is often used for reforestation projects in degraded areas.

In addition to its practical uses, Casuarina equisetifolia is also a popular ornamental tree in tropical regions. Its attractive form and foliage make it a favorite for landscaping and garden design.

However, Whistling Pines is also considered invasive in some areas, such as Florida and Hawaii, where it can outcompete and displace native species. Therefore, it is important to carefully consider the potential impacts before planting Casuarina equisetifolia in a new location.

Common Names: Casuarina, Common Rhu, Common Ru, Horsetail Tree, Beach She-Oak, Whistling Pine, Aru, Southsea Ironwood, Mile Tree, Australian Pine, Cemara Laut, Horsetail Casuarina, She-oak.

Here are the common names of Casuarina Equisetifolia in different Indian languages:

Hindi: सरुव (Saru), झाऊ (Jhau)
Tamil: சவுக்காளை (Savukkālai), சரு (Saru)
Telugu: సవు (Savu), సారు (Saru)
Kannada: ಸವು (Savu), ಕರಿ ತುಂಗ (Kari Tunga)
Malayalam: സവുക്കാള (Savukkaala), സാര്‍ (Saru)
Bengali: ঝাউ (Jhau), সরু (Saru)
Marathi: सारू (Saru), शिखरी (Shikhari)
Gujarati: ઝાઉ (Jhau), સારુ (Saru)
Punjabi: ਸਰੂ (Saru), ਜਾਉ (Jau)
Urdu: جھاؤ (Jhau), سارو (Saru)

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How to Propagate Casuarina Equisetifolia?

Whistling Pines can be propagated through seeds, cuttings, or air layering. Here’s how to propagate Casuarina equisetifolia:

Propagation by Seeds

Seed Collection: Collect mature seeds from Casuarina equisetifolia trees. The seeds are contained in small cones that resemble woody fruits. Harvest the Whistling Pines cones when they turn brown and start to open, indicating that the seeds are mature and ready for collection.

Seed Preparation: Extract the Whistling Pines seeds from the cones and remove any remaining fruit pulp. Rinse the seeds thoroughly to remove any debris.

Seed Scarification: Casuarina equisetifolia seeds have a hard outer coating that can inhibit germination. To enhance germination rates, scarify the seeds by scratching or rubbing them lightly with sandpaper or a file. This will help water penetrate the seed coat.

Pre-germination Treatment (optional): Some gardeners soak the scarified seeds in warm water overnight before sowing to further improve germination rates. This step is optional but can aid in softening the seed coat.

Sowing the Seeds: Fill seed trays or pots with a well-draining seed-starting mix. Plant the scarified Casuarina equisetifolia seeds at a depth of about ¼ inch (0.6 cm) and cover them lightly with soil. Keep the seeds spaced apart to allow room for growth.

Watering and Care: Moisten the soil thoroughly after sowing the seeds. Place the trays or pots in a warm and well-lit area, such as a greenhouse or a sunny spot. Keep the soil consistently moist but avoid overwatering. Germination usually occurs within a few weeks to a couple of months.

Propagation by Cuttings

Cutting Selection: Choose healthy and mature branches from a Casuarina equisetifolia tree. Select semi-hardwood cuttings that are about 4-6 inches (10-15 cm) long.

Cutting Preparation: Remove the leaves from the lower half of the Whistling Pines cutting, leaving a few at the top. Dip the cut end in a rooting hormone powder or gel to encourage root development (optional).

Planting the Cuttings: Fill pots or containers with a well-draining potting mix. Insert the cuttings into the soil, burying them about halfway. Firmly press the soil around the cuttings to provide stability.

Watering and Care: Water the soil thoroughly after planting the Casuarina equisetifolia cuttings. Place the pots or containers in a warm and brightly lit area. Maintain high humidity by covering the cuttings with a plastic bag or using a propagation dome. Keep the soil consistently moist but not waterlogged.

Root Development: Over time, the Casuarina equisetifolia cuttings will develop roots. You can gently tug on the cuttings after a few weeks to check for resistance, indicating that roots have formed.

Transplanting: Once the Casuarina equisetifolia cuttings have established a good root system, usually within a couple of months, they can be transplanted into larger pots or directly into the ground. Choose a location with suitable sunlight and well-draining soil.

Requirements to Grow Casuarina Equisetifolia

Casuarina equisetifolia 3


Casuarina equisetifolia thrives in full sunlight. It requires at least 6-8 hours of direct sunlight each day for optimal growth and development. Choose a location that receives ample sunlight throughout the day.


Whistling Pine prefers well-draining soil that is sandy or loamy in nature. It can tolerate a wide range of soil pH levels, from acidic to alkaline. However, Casuarina equisetifolia grows best in slightly acidic to neutral soil. Ensure good drainage to prevent waterlogging.


Casuarina equisetifolia is a drought-tolerant tree once established, but it benefits from regular watering during the initial growth phase. Water Whistling Pines  deeply once or twice a week, allowing the soil to dry out slightly between waterings.

Reduce watering during the dormant season.

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Casuarina equisetifolia thrives in warm and tropical climates. It can tolerate high temperatures and is well-suited to the hot and humid conditions of many regions in India. Whistling Pines is also tolerant of coastal conditions, including salty air and strong winds.

Casuarina Equisetifolia Care


Casuarina equisetifolia is a nitrogen-fixing tree and generally does not require much fertilizer. However, during the initial planting phase, you can incorporate well-composted organic matter into the soil to provide nutrients.

Once established, Whistling Pines  can benefit from a balanced slow-release fertilizer once or twice a year.


Casuarina equisetifolia typically does not require extensive pruning. However, you can prune the tree to shape it, remove dead or damaged branches, or maintain its size. Pruning is best done during the dormant season.

Avoid excessive pruning, as it can weaken Whistling Pines tree.

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Pests and Diseases

Casuarina equisetifolia is relatively pest and disease resistant. However, it can occasionally be affected by pests such as mealybugs, aphids, or scale insects.

Regularly inspect the Whistling Pines tree for any signs of infestation and treat them with appropriate organic insecticides if necessary. These trees are generally resilient against diseases, but proper care and monitoring for issues like root rot or fungal infections are important to maintain tree health.

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