How to Grow Millettia Pinnata | Pongame Oil Tree Care

Last Updated: 19.10.2023

Millettia pinnata is a versatile tree with ecological and economic benefits. Pongame Oil Trees also make for a valuable species for landscapers. 

Millettia pinnata

Also known as Pongamia or Indian Beech, Millettia pinnata is a tropical tree that belongs to the Fabaceae family. Pongame Oil Tree is native to parts of Asia, including India, Myanmar, and Thailand.

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Millettia Pinnata Information

Millettia pinnata is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree that can reach a height of 10-25 meters (30-80 feet) at maturity. It has a spreading crown with a rounded or irregular shape. The tree produces small, fragrant flowers arranged in racemes or clusters, typically in white or pale lavender color, with a yellow or pink center.

Millettia pinnata bears flattened, woody pods about 5-8 centimeters (2-3 inches) long. The pods are initially green and turn brown as they mature. Each pod contains 1-4 seeds, which are round, brown, and approximately 1 centimeter (0.4 inches) in diameter.

The tree is known for its ability to fix nitrogen in the soil through its root nodules, contributing to soil fertility and ecosystem health. Millettia pinnata also provides shade and shelter for various wildlife species. Its flowers attract pollinators, supporting biodiversity.

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How to Grow Millettia Pinnata?


To grow Millettia pinnata from seeds, you can follow these steps:

  • Look for fully ripened pods that have turned brown and are beginning to split open naturally. Remove the seeds from the pods and discard any damaged or discolored ones.
  • Pongame Oil Tree seeds have a hard seed coat that can inhibit germination. To enhance germination rates, you can perform seed scarification.
  • Prepare a germination medium by combining equal parts of peat moss and sand or perlite. Fill small pots or seed trays with the germination medium, leaving some space at the top.
  • Plant Millettia pinnata seeds in the germination medium. Place one seed per pot or space them out in the seed tray. Plant the seeds at a depth of about 1-2 centimeters. Gently cover the seeds with the germination medium and lightly press it down.
  • Moisten the germination medium thoroughly using a watering can or sprayer. Ensure that the medium is evenly moist but not soggy. Place the pots or seed trays in a warm location with indirect sunlight.
  • Millettia pinnata seeds typically germinate within 2-4 weeks, although it can take longer in some cases. Keep the germination medium consistently moist during the germination period. Provide a warm temperature between 25-30°C to promote germination. Germination can be sporadic, so be patient and continue to care for the seeds.

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Requirements to Grow Millettia Pinnata

Millettia pinnata 2


Millettia pinnata thrives in full sun to partial shade. It prefers at least 6-8 hours of direct sunlight daily for optimal growth and flowering. However, it can tolerate some shade, especially in hot regions where partial shade can protect from intense sunlight.


Millettia pinnata is a drought-tolerant tree once established, but it requires regular watering during the initial stages of growth. Water the tree deeply once or twice a week during dry periods.

Ensure that the soil is evenly moist but not soggy. Once the tree is established, it can tolerate short periods of drought but will benefit from occasional watering during prolonged dry spells.

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Pongame Oil Tree grows well in various soil types but thrives in well-draining soils. Millettia pinnata can tolerate slightly acidic to slightly alkaline soil with a pH range of 6.0-7.5.

The soil should have good water-holding capacity but should not become waterlogged. Amend heavy or clayey soils with organic matter, such as compost or well-rotted manure, to improve drainage and fertility.


Millettia pinnata is native to tropical and subtropical regions and prefers warm temperatures. It can tolerate a wide range of temperatures, from 10°C to 40°C.

However, young seedlings are more sensitive to cold temperatures and frost. Provide protection, such as covering or bringing the plants indoors, if temperatures drop below 10°C.

Millettia Pinnata Care



Millettia pinnata is a nitrogen-fixing tree, meaning it can convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form with the help of symbiotic bacteria in its root nodules.

Use a fertilizer with an N-P-K ratio of 10-10-10 or similar, following the manufacturer’s instructions for application rates.


Pruning Millettia pinnata is generally not required unless you need to shape the tree or remove dead or damaged branches. If pruning is necessary, do so during the dormant season, preferably in early spring before new growth begins.

Remove any crossed, rubbing, or diseased branches. Maintaining a central leader and avoiding excessive pruning is essential, as the tree’s growth habit is naturally well-balanced.

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Pests and Diseases

Millettia pinnata is generally resistant to most pests and diseases. However, it can occasionally be affected by common garden pests such as aphids, mealybugs, and scale insects.

Regularly inspect the tree for signs of pest infestation, such as distorted leaves, sticky residue, or pests. Use appropriate organic insecticides or introduce beneficial insects for pest control if necessary.

It is relatively disease-resistant but can be susceptible to fungal diseases such as root rot in poorly drained soils. To prevent diseases, ensure good air circulation around the tree, avoid overwatering, and maintain proper soil drainage. If necessary, apply appropriate fungicides following the instructions provided.

It’s important to note that Millettia pinnata is a hardy and low-maintenance tree once established.

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