How to Grow Gmelina Arborea in India

Gmelina arborea is a plant that is not very much known by common people in India. Let’s have a look at its growing information.

Gmelina Arborea

Gmelina arborea is popular as Gamhar in India. It provides good quality timber and can be used to make a plethora of wooden items. The tree is also popular for curing ailments as it is a great astringent with digestive, cardiotonic, diuretic, and laxative properties.

Common Names: Gamhar, Beechwood, Goomar Teak, Kashmir Tree, White Teak

Learn all about growing Murraya paniculata in India here

Gmelina Arborea Information

Gmelina arborea is a deciduous tree species native to Southeast Asia and India. It is an evergreen tree that can grow up to 50 m (165 ft) tall and has a trunk diameter of up to 2 m (6.5 ft). The bark is grey-brown and smooth, and the leaves are opposite, lanceolate, and 10–15 cm (4–6 in) long.

The flowers are small, white, and fragrant, and the fruit is a large, yellow-green drupe. The wood is light, strong, and durable and is used for furniture, construction, and paper pulp. It is also used as firewood and for medicinal purposes.

Propagating Gmelina Arborea

White Fences Arboretum

Follow the below steps for propagating Gmelina arborea:

  1. Collection of seeds: The first step is to collect mature and healthy seeds from Gmelina arborea during the fruiting season when the capsules turn brown and begin to split open.
  2. Seed treatment: After collection, soak them in water for 24 hours to soften the seed coat.
  3. Sowing: Sow the seeds in well-draining soil and cover them with a thin layer of growing medium. Water well.
  4. Germination: Gmelina arborea seeds typically germinate within 7-14 days. After germination, thin out the weaker seedlings, leaving only the strongest and healthiest ones.
  5. Transplanting: Once the seedlings are around 15-20cm tall, you can transplant them into the garden.

Requirements of Growing Gmelina Arborea

Gmelina Arborea 2


Gmelina arborea prefers full sun for optimal growth and development. It requires at least 6-8 hours of direct light per day to thrive.

Planting it in a location with partial shade or shade can result in slower growth and lower-quality timber. However, it is important to note that young Gmelina arborea plants can be susceptible to scorching if they are exposed to direct sunlight for long hours without adequate protection.


Gmelina arborea can grow in a wide range of soil types but thrives in well-draining soil that is rich in organic matter.

The tree prefers slightly acidic soils with a pH range of 6 to 7 but can tolerate soils with pH levels ranging from 5 to 8. Add plenty of organic matter in the growing medium like compost and cow dung manure at the time of planting.


The tree requires regular watering, especially during the early stages of growth, to ensure proper establishment and development. Water Gmelina arborea only when the topsoil feels a little dry to the touch till it reaches a height of 5-6 feet. After that, it will take care of its own.


Gmelina arborea can grow well in a wide range of temperatures, from 20°C to 40°C, but it thrives best in areas with a mean annual temperature of 27-32°C. The tree is also sensitive to frost and cannot tolerate temperatures below 10°C.

Taking Care of Gmelina Arborea



The tree requires fertile soil with adequate nutrients for optimal growth. When cultivating Gmelina arborea,  apply a balanced fertilizer once in 4-6 weeks. Once it reaches a height of 3-4 feet, you won’t have to worry much about feeding it.


Beechwood responds well to pruning, which can promote healthy growth and improve wood quality. When pruning Gmelina arborea, it is essential to remove dead, diseased, or damaged wood regularly to prevent the spread of disease and pests.

Also, remove overcrowded or crossing branches. The best time for pruning is during summer, as this can reduce the risk of fungal infections.

Pests and Diseases

The tree is susceptible to a range of pests and diseases that can impact its growth and yield. Some of the common pests that affect Gmelina arborea include termites, bark borers, leaf-eating caterpillars, and defoliators, such as bagworms and webworms.

In terms of diseases, it can be affected by leaf spot, powdery mildew, and root rot, among others. These diseases can cause leaf damage, reduce tree vigor, and even lead to tree death.

To prevent pest and disease infestations, it is essential to maintain proper tree care, such as regular pruning, weed control, and watering. Additionally, applying appropriate insecticides and fungicides can help to control pest and disease populations.


Gmelina arborea is generally considered non-toxic to humans and animals. However, some parts of the tree, such as the bark and leaves, have been found to contain certain chemical compounds, such as tannins, that can be toxic in large quantities.

When working with Gmelina wood, it is recommended to take appropriate safety precautions, such as wearing protective gear and working in a well-ventilated area, to avoid inhaling sawdust or other wood particles.

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